LIGHT OF LIFE
VETERINARY
CLINIC AND SERVICES
(SINGAPORE)

We believe in No Nonsense Creation Care.

PETS' HEALTH CONDITIONS

TOPICS THAT YOU MAY BE INTERESTED TO KNOW.

KITTENS

Ten things you should know:

FOOD
Always feed a commercially formulated kitten food from a reputable company - canned, dry or both.

Homecooked food maybe deficient in calcium, protein, taurine, vitamins, etc.

VACCINATION 
The first kitten vaccine should be given at 6-8 weeks old, followed by a second vaccine 1 month later.
Socialisation with other pets should be 2 weeks after the last kitten vaccine.

DEWORMING
Anti-intestinal-worm medication should be given every 2 weeks until the completion of its last kitten vaccine.
The future schedule can be quarterly, 6-monthly or annually, depending on the lifestyle of the pet.

FLEA AND LICE CONTROL
External parasites should be eliminated because they spread diseases and cause extreme
discomfort to your pet.

STERILIZATION
We recommend sterilizing your pet at 5-6 months old.

DENTAL CARE
Train your kitten to let you examine its mouth and teeth. Start teeth cleaning with a soft cloth and pet’s toothpaste. Set and adjust a schedule for ultrasonic dental scaling and polishing based on the speed of tartar & plaque build up on your pet’s teeth.
 
LITTER BOX
Ensure that you purchase a litterbox big enough for your kitten when it grows into a cat. Buy a good quality litter that absorbs urine well without irritating your kitten’s paws. Clean your litter pan at least once or twice daily.

WEIGHT GAIN
Your kitten should be growing quite rapidly - average of 10-15g per day.

PLAY
Playing with your kitten will help them develop motor skills, vent their frustration of being cooped up and also help them bond to you.
 
KITTEN-PROOF YOUR HOUSE
Place fine wire mesh on your windows now to prevent your kitten from falling out or escaping into the dangerous concrete jungle outside.  

MORE THINGS TO KNOW...

Kittens are consider adult cats when they are 1 year old - you may feed them an adult cat food then.

Some cats eat at fixed timing, some prefer to graze. Your can provide dry food all the time or canned food 2-4 times a day.

We recommend that you quarantine/ separate your new kitten from the rest of your pets for 10-14 days.

Encourage good water intake at a young age - make it into a game. Most pets should be taking about 60ml/kg of water daily.

You can feed your pets a variety of good quality food so they do not develop a dietary preference. This will be helpful if there is a need to change them to veterinary prescripton diet.

Change diet slowly - mix the old and new food (50%-50%) for 1 week before a complete replacement. 

 

NEW BORN KITTENS

EMERGENCY KITTEN FORMULA:

237ml homogenized whole milk

2 egg yolks

1 teaspoon (5ml) vegetable oil

1 drop liquid pediatric vitamins (optional)

Mix well and warm before using. Keep refrigerated.
This provides 120 calories per 100ml.

This formula is NOT for long term use.

Cow’s milk is not a suitable substitute because it is low in calories & protein but high in fat content.

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Age: 1 wk (113g) 32ml milk per day; Feed every 1-2hrs

Age: 2 wks (198g) 56ml milk per day; Feed every 2-3 hrs

Age: 3 wks (283g) 80ml milk per day; Feed every 3-4 hrs

Age: 4 wks (368g) 104ml milk per day; Feed every 4-6 hrs

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KEEP YOUR KITTEN WARM AT ALL TIMES
The normal temperature of a young kitten range from 35.5C to 37.8C.

Kittens under 3 weeks old cannot control their body temperature very well.

Do not feed a cold kitten milk because their cold body cannot digest the formula and may develop a bloated stomach and start vomiting.

Do not feed cold milk. Drip milk on the back of your hand to check the temperature before feeding. It should be warm. 

Warm the cold kitten slowly. Place the kitten near your skin and cover with a sweater for 3-4 hours. 
 
KEEP YOUR KITTEN AWAY FROM OTHER ANIMALS
It is important to quarantine the kitten from other animals.
   
This will prevent any infectious diseases from passing between the kitten and your home pets.
   
We recommend 10-14 days of quarantine/separation from other pets.    
 

 

 

GOLDEN YEARS

The care of older pets is directed at preventing premature aging, minimizing physical and emotional stresses, and meeting the special needs of the elderlies.

While every pet should have an annual physical examination, a pet older than 7 years who is in good health should have a complete veterinary examination at least once a year, preferably twice a year.

For giant breeds (eg Great Dane, Saint Bernard, Wolfhound, etc), the age for annual exams is 5.

The annual geriatric check up should include a physical examination, complete blood count, blood chemistries, urinalysis, and parasite examination.

Liver and kidney function tests, thyroid levels, chest x-ray and electrocardiogram may be needed if specific signs and symptoms appear.

Routine dental care, including scaling the teeth, may be needed more frequently than once a year.

DANGER SIGNS

Go through the check list below, if you noticed any of the following, consult a vet as soon as possible.

  • Loss of appetite or weight
  • Coughing or rapid, laboured breathing
  • Weakness or exercise intolerance
  • Increased thirst and /or frequency of urination
  • Change in bowel function with constipation or diarrhea
  • Bloody or purulent discharge from a body opening
  • An increase in temperature, pulse or breathing rate
  • A growth or lump anywhere on the body

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MYTHS: AGEING PETS DON’T NEED EXERCISE, AND PREVENTATIVE HEALTH CARE IS NO LONGER NEEDED.
Good nutrition, adequate exercise and proper health management are essential throughout a pet’s lifetime.


MYTHS: DISEASES, ACHES AND PAIN ARE NORMAL AND ACCEPTABLE FOR AGEING ANIMALS.
No living things should have to endure chronic, persistent pain and diseases when there are many safe and effective medications and management plans available.

 

ALLERGIES

Skin reaction associated with exposure to things in your pet’s environment that stimulates an exaggerated response from the immune system.

This can be something your pet has eaten, sniffed, or even rubbed up against.

The over enthusiastic immune system is an inherited condition.
 

CATEGORIES OF SKIN ALLERGIES

ATOPIC
Pets breath in the allergen from the air.

FOOD
Pets react to the food dyes, preservativess, additives, protein or carbohydrate in their diet after prolonged exposure.

CONTACT
The skin of pets being in contact with allergens.

PARASITES
Pets immune system overreacting to a single bite of a flea or mite.

Common signs of allergic reaction:
Excessive scratching, licking/biting, redness, irritation, swelling, blisters or pustules, red, painful ears with pus, hot spots, scaliness, hair loss or oily skin, teary and swollen eyes.

WE ARE UNABLE TO CURE
AN INHERITED CONDITION.

We will work with you to create a management plan tailored for your pet’s condition. 

WE DO NOT ADVOCATE THE REPEATED USE OF CORTICOSTEROID INJECTIONS AS A LONG TERM SOLUTION FOR SKIN ALLERGIES.

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MYTHS: I DO NOT FEED CHICKEN TO MY PET, THEREFORE IT CANNOT POSSIBLY HAVE SKIN REACTION ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD.
Chicken components are not the only cause of allergic skin reaction. Some pets are allergic to beef, lamb, fish, dairy, corn, soy, wheat, food colourings, etc.

 

 

HEARTWORM

It is transmitted via a mosquito bite.

LIFECYCLE - A mosquito sucks in a Stage One Larva from the blood of an infested animal.

Then after 2-2.5 weeks, the larva develop into a Stage Three Larva in the mosquito.

This mosquito injects the larva into an animal via a bite and the larva develops and migrate to the blood system.

The adult worms can lodge in the heart of the affected pet.

The adult female heartworms can also release baby larva 6 months after infection.

Untreated animal infested with heartworm can die of heart failure.

A human can get the disease if bitten by the an infected mosquito. However,  the human immune system will normally recognize the parasite in the body and destroy it. In very rare cases, the larva will find its way into the person's lungs where it will then stimulate an inflammatory lesion. Currently, no human has died of heartworm infestation. Diseases That Cause Heartworms in Humans | eHow.com

Heartworm associated diseases and death can be avoided. Discuss with your vet about a prevention protocol today. 

PREVENTION PROTOCOL 101

  1. Start medication at 4-5 months old.
  2. Give 1 dose every month, around the same date.
  3. Continue the protocol throughout the lifespan of your pet.
  4. Do a heartworm test before starting on the protocol if your pet is older than 6 months old.
  5. Self medication without a test can cause sudden death in infected dogs.
  6. If you miss a dose, call your vet for advice.
  7. You can switch between the various medication available in the market as long as you did not miss a dose.
 
 
 

 

WHAT ABOUT MY PET'S TEETH?

The teeth of your pets play multiple roles in their lives and have an important part in their overall health and activity. They are used to perform routines such as holding, carrying, cutting, shearing, crushing and grinding things. They can also be used in protection, aggression and sexual attraction rituals.

The front teeth - for cutting, scooping, picking at or up, and grooming.

The canines - used to slash and tear, when used as weapons in fighting.

The premolars - to hold, carry and also to crush.

The molars are the last group of teeth - for crushing, grinding and breaking things into smaller pieces.

Although the teeth of animals vary in sizes, shapes and functions, the component and structure of all teeth are generally similar in most companion animals.

The soft tissue around the teeth is commonly known as gums. It protects and supports the teeth but can easily be affected by injuries or infection if the oral health condition is not ideal.

Majority of the companion pets enter adulthood with relatively healthy mouths. With time, many factors can contribute to the degeneration of the oral structures resulting in the development of inflammation of the gums and/ or inflammation of the tooth components.

Some of the common risks factors are-:

1)     Species - Dogs and cats most frequently suffer from teeth associated diseases while the pocket pets (hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits) often are born with poor teeth alignment.

2)     Breed - Small, toy and short nose dog breeds are more prone to having poor teeth alignment, overcrowding, and rotation of teeth, retained and excess number of teeth. These conditions forms small, unreachable gaps and spaces in the oral structure, which allow plaque causing food particles to get trapped and increase the difficulty of oral hygiene procedures (such as brushing).

3)     Age - It will be more accurate to state that the severity of dental disease may be directly associated with a lifetime and cumulative absence of good dental health care protocols then an age specific condition.

4)     Immunocompentency - An abnormally active or compromised immune system will both affect the oral and systemic health of your pets

5)     Nutrition and food characteristics - Inappropriate nutrition may result in weakened oral structures in young animals. Food made of an appropriate size and shape, and texture can improve the cleanliness of the teeth by promoting the frequency of chewing.

6)     Chewing behaviour - Undesirable habits of chewing hard or abrasive materials (e.g. hard bones, stones, fences, metal grills, electrical wires) can wear off the natural protective layer of the teeth and injure the soft gums thus increase the risk of tooth fracture and oral infection.   

It is therefore very important for your pets that you work with your vet to formulate a proper plan to familiarize them with their daily dental home care routine and veterinary dental protocol to ensure that their oral cavity is kept at an optimum condition.

 

 

RABBIT DIET

Rabbits commonly fall sick because of an unbalanced/ inappropriate diet.

PROPER FEEDING

A) HAY - should be 80% of rabbit diet
Alfalfa or Clover hays are tasty but are too rich in protein and calcium to be fed unrestricted.     
Timothy, Oat and Orchard hays are good sources of fibre with lower amount of calcium.
First cut hay - rough and higher in fiber content
Second cut hay - more frangrant and softer, lesser fiber.  

B) PELLETS - Used as feed for commercial rabbit farms to provide trace nutrients, vitamins and minerals. 1/8 cup of quality pellets per 2kg per day is adequate.

A good quality rabbit pellet DOES NOT include dried fruits, seeds, nuts, colored crunchy pellets that are attractive to our human eyes.

Feed pellets made from timothy hay.
 
C) GREENS - About 250mg of leafy greens per kg per day.

Try broccoli, dark leaf lettuces, kale, parsley, carrots, endive, dill, basil, mint, cilantro, culantro, spinach, tomato, bok chai, chai sim, kai lan, fresh-grown garden herbs such as tarragon.
 
D)
NATURAL TREATS - Try kiwi, raspberries, pear, edible flowers, strawberries, blackberries, peach, cherries, blueberries, apple, papaya, mangoes, melons.
    
E)
AVOID - Beans, bread, seeds, chocolate, peas, cereals, oats, refined sugar, corn, nuts, wheat and other grains.

F) VARIETY - Do not allow your rabbit to develop a dietary preference - feed it a good variety of food so that it has a good intake of vitamins and minerals.
 
G)
Water - Daily intake of 200-500ml is recommended.

"Don't Feed Your Bunny What You Wouldn't Eat."
Always Fresh. Not Rotten.

THINGS TO KNOW

  • Rabbits cannot vomit.
  • Rabbits don’t see their food right in front of them ...it is a blind spot. They smell it first.
  • Do not “fast” a rabbit - not even before surgery. It is not necessary.
  • A blockage in the digestive system is very serious and can be avoided with the right diet.
  • All dietary changes should be done slowly.
    The old pellet diet should be mixed with the new type of pellet and fed for about 1 week before a complete replacement is done.
    For rabbits that were not given hay, cut the hay into short pieces about the size of the pellet. Then gradually increase the hay quantity.
  • If your bunny stops eating for 12 to 24 hours, this is an emergency.  Take your rabbit to the vet!
  • A rabbit, that is well taken care of, can live for 5-7 years on average.

 

 

BLOOD TESTS

We attempt to explain, in simple language, the concept of blood analysis for your pet to you. We do not want you to interprete the blood test results but point out the importance of a timely analysis. We hope this will help you in some ways.

Haematology
Assessment of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. This will determine the body’s ability to circulate oxygen, fight diseases, clot blood and perform many basic functions. 

Biochemistry
Assessment of various organ systems using the serum in blood. This profile can be a single test or a panel of multiple tests.
 
A typical biochemistry profile:

1) Total Proteins (Globulin & Albumin) - Indicators for inflammation, antibody production, hydration status, liver & kidney functions, digestive systems.

2) Liver 
(ALT, AST) - Indicators for liver cell injury. 
(ALP, GGT) - Indicators for blie flow in liver.
       
3) Bilirubin - Indicator for red blood cell and gallbladder health and bile flow in liver.

4) Kidney (Urea & BUN) - Indicators for hydration status, gastrointestinal, kidney & liver functions.

5) Pancreas (Amylase & Lipase) - Indicators for pancreas health, kidney function and steroid use.

6) Glucose - Indicator for diabetes status, steriod use, cancer status, liver function and infection.
 
7) Calcium & Phosphate - Indicators for kidney function, cancer status, poisoning, nerve electrical impulse function.

8) Cholesterol - Indicator for hormonal and metabolic functions, liver and kidney functions.

9) Electrolytes (Potassium, Chloride, Sodium and Bicarbonate) - Indicators for fluid balance and normal electrical impulses in the body.   

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THINGS TO KNOW

The blood test mentioned is considered a full but generalised analysis. For some conditions, the vet may recommend a further lists of more indepth tests. In other situations, the vet may not recommend a full blood test.

Some diseases, in their early stages, do not show any external signs, but may be reflected in the blood test results.

Theoritically, the blood test result can change rapidly in some animals/ clinical conditions. Some fluctuations in the quantitative levels can been detected every 12-24 hours.
 
Bear in mind that the normal reference range can be different for different species, life stages and diagnostic machines.

A follow-up review is always recommended in order to keep track of your pet’s health condition.

 

ANAESTHESIA

Local Anaesthetic (LA)
Pet is kept awake and may be mobile; only certain affected areas are made to lose sensation. This is usually for compliant pets and superificial procedures. 

General Anaesthetic (GA)
Pet is given medication to induce complete loss of conciousness. This permit the performance of surgeries or other potentially painful procedures.

NO SURGERY IS SIMPLE.
We want to reduce risk of general anaesthesia and surgery for your pet.
 
We recommend you consider-:
1) A Pre-GA Quantitative Analysis - Blood Tests and Urinalysis

2) Intravenous Fluid Therapy During General Anaesthesia
3) Anaesthetic Gas Induction (Medical Grade Oxygen) For Senior/High Risk Pets
4) Post Surgical Review

Things we do to further reduce risks:
1) A 7 Point Pre-GA Physical Examination by Veterinarian
2) Administer Pain Modulator Medication
3) Close Post-GA Monitoring  
  

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THINGS TO KNOW

You need to withold food from your pet for 12 hours before anaesthesia; and withhold water from your pet for 1-2 hours before anaesthesia.

A full stomach increases the risk of choking during anaesthesia.

We use medical grade oxygen to ventilate and human anaesthetic agents to maintain all your anaesthesia.

We aim to keep all procedures within 45 minute to reduce anaesthetic/ surgical associated complications.
 
Your pet will need 3-4 hours to become completely awake. This may be longer if your pet is older/ ill. In this case, hospitalisation may be recommended.

Your pet may still be sleepy when it reaches home. But you can provide small amount of food and water 1/2 hour after reaching home.

  

STERILIZATION

We encourage sterilization of both male and female pets.

SPAY - sterilization of a female pet.
The surgery is called an ovariohysterectomy, in which the ovaries and uterus are removed.

NEUTER - sterilization of a male pet.
The surgery is called an orchiectomy, in which the testicles are removed.
 
NO SURGERY IS SIMPLE.
Sterilization is a routine surgery, not necessarily an easy surgery.

Benefits for sterilized female pets - 
1) Lower risks of breast, uterine and ovarian diseases and cancers
2) Lower risks of womb infection

3) Maintain cleanliness to reduce bacteria over population near reproductive organ

Benefits for sterilized male pets -
1) Lower risks of prostatic, testicular diseases and cancers
2) Reduce roaming and marking tendencies
3) Reduce aggression and fighting

We recommend to sterilize your pets at about 6 month old - this will provide about 90% protection from related cancers.

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MYTHS: IT IS INHUMANE TO ROB THE ANIMALS OF THE RIGHT TO PROCREATE. It is even more inhumane to create pet overpopulation, leading to pet abandonment and resultant stray culling.

IGNORANT BELIEFS ARE A FORM OF ABUSE.
BE A RESPONSIBLE PET OWNER.

 

 

VETERINARY EXPERIMENTS

SNOOPING AROUND - SO THAT WE KNOW BETTER.

Experiment A

This an experiment I have decided to conduct.

Purpose: To establish the efficacy of "Product A" - a food grade substance that the manufacturer claims will kill pest.

How long will it take to kill the hated ticks? Stay Tuned.

The ziplock will be opened to allow air in so that the ticks does not die of suffocation.

Latest update:

"Product A" does not work on ticks very well.

It took 2 whole weeks before one of the ticks died.

The other survived for another 2 days.

On top of that, they laid 2 large clumps of yucky eggs before they bid their last farewell.

 

Testimonials

  • "Brought my kitty in for a swollen lip relapse (previously with another vet). For the first time in years he could receive an injection without narcosis. A real miracle for me to..."
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  • "Brought my kitty in for a swollen lip relapse (previously with another vet). For the first time in years he could receive an injection without narcosis. A real miracle for me to..."
    Audrey
    Excellent and wonderful vet

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